Managing Diet and Activity for Healthy Body Fatness 1. Describe how successful or unsuccessful you have been at applying your concept into your life. 2. W

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Managing Diet and Activity for Healthy Body Fatness

 

1. Describe how successful or unsuccessful you have been at applying your concept into your life.

2. What are several factors that could be contributing to your success or failure?

3. What will you do to improve or continue your application of this concept or will you decide to choose a different one to work on?

4. Include the word count at the end of the page

Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 12e

Concept 16
Managing Diet and Activity
for Health Body Fatness

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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Concept 16

Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity are useful in achieving and maintaining optimal body composition.

Discussion Activity

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The Discussion Activity (a link is provided on this slide) is a start-up question to consider, giving students the opportunity to ponder and discuss their ideas before beginning the presentation.

Learning objectives for this Concept:

Explain the principles for weight control and the concept of energy balance.

Identify the features of an obesogenic environment that influence our behavior.

Outline guidelines for weight loss treatments.

Describe and apply, when appropriate, guidelines for losing body fat.

Utilize healthy shopping and eating strategies and guidelines.

Evaluate fast food options.

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Concept Overview

Factors Influencing Weight and Fat Control

Confronting an Obesogenic Environment

Guidelines for Losing Body Fat

Facts about Fad Diets and Clinical Approaches to
Weight Loss

Using Self-Management Skills

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This slide and the next provide an opportunity to review the main topics discussed in the textbook for this Concept. The presentation will cover the essential aspects of weight control. The myths and problems associated with fad diets are described, along with the benefits of healthy lifestyle approaches.

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Figure 1 Components of energy intake must balance components of energy expenditure for weight maintenance

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This graphic depicts the basic factors influencing energy balance. A basic understanding of your caloric needs is important for weight control.

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Creeping Obesity (Review)

Physical activity decreases with age and leads to a decrease in metabolic rate.

If energy expenditure drops
more than energy intake,
weight gain will occur.

Concept 14, Figure 7
Creeping obesity

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Review the idea of “creeping obesity” that was introduced in Concept 14.

The primary factors associated with an increase in body fat with age is a progressive decrease in metabolism. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is highly dependent on the amount of lean body mass (LBM) an individual has. With age, a person’s LBM decreases and, therefore, so does the BMR. Exercise is one way of maintaining LBM and keeping BMR elevated.

Physical activity is also known to decrease with age. This decrease is another reason for creeping obesity.

To maintain body weight, it is necessary for people to either maintain a habit of regular exercise or to progressively decrease their caloric intake as they get older.

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Energy Balance

Small imbalances between intake and expenditure can contribute to progressive weight (fat) gain.

Increases in energy intake result from:

High-fat, energy-dense foods

Low-cost, easily available foods

Larger portion sizes

Reductions in energy expenditure result from:

Less work-related activity

Less activity in daily living

More sedentary behavior

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Subtle changes in diet and activity patterns can have major effects on body weight and body fatness. Experts have concluded that the recent trends in obesity are due in large part to environmental influences that make it difficult to manage body fat levels.

The term obesogenic has been used to describe the elements of our environment that collectively promote eating and inactivity. This slide reviews the various aspects of the obesogenic environment and how they influence the energy balance equation.

The essence is that we are continually confronted with environments that make it easy to consume large quantities of energy-dense food. We also live in an environment in which most physical tasks are no longer necessary and people have less apparent time available for active recreation. Small increases in energy intake combined with small decreases in energy expenditure lead to the storage of fat. Awareness of these environmental influences is important if we desire to maintain a healthy body fat level and weight.

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Figure 2 Social and environmental
components of the obesogenic environment

An obesogenic environment makes it difficult to maintain a healthy weight.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Public Policies

Which seem the most promising?

Posting food values in restaurants

Restricting food commercials that target children

Improving access to healthy food in schools

Requiring more activity and physical education in schools

Promoting physical activity with incentives for participation

Implementing policies and programs to promote active commuting

Implementing an empty-calorie tax (also called a fat tax)

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Public policy has a strong influence on behavior because it has the potential to influence all segments of the population. Examples of recent public policy changes have been advocated or adopted are noted on this slide.

Although public support is strong for many of these policies, some argue that policy changes such as a “fat tax” infringe on personal liberties. Nevertheless, changes in public policy have resulted in major reductions in smoking and smoking-related deaths over the past 20 years. Experts feel that similar public policy changes can decrease obesity in America and reduce the medical costs associated with obesity.

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Guidelines for Losing Body Fat

Two ways to create a caloric deficit:

Eat less!

Exercise more!

Behavioral goals are more effective
than outcome goals.

Behavioral goals are within your control.

Focusing on outcome goals is more likely to lead to frustration when targets aren’t achieved as quickly as hoped.

Review Lab 16B

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To lose weight, it is necessary to create a caloric deficit (expend more than you take in). There are really only two ways to do this: eat less or exercise more.

Despite what fad diets claim, there are no secret pills or techniques that make weight loss easy.

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Lifestyle Approach

A simple and effective method for long-term weight control is adopting a combination of healthy eating and regular activity patterns.

(left) ©Onoky/SuperStock; (right) ©Fancy Collection/SuperStock

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A lifestyle approach may take longer than the claims of fad diets, but the weight loss will be real, sustainable, and healthy, and it will allow you to take in enough calories for good health. It will also be easier to live with than an extreme fad diet.

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Physical Activity and Weight Control

There are many benefits of physical activity for
weight control:

Burns calories

Maintains lean body mass

Increases metabolism

Promotes greater fat loss

Suppresses appetite

©McGraw-Hill Education.

There are many benefits of exercise for weight loss:

1. Burns calories.

2. Maintains lean body mass, which keeps the basal metabolic rate higher.

3. Increases the metabolic rate following exercise, so you burn more calories even when resting.

4. Exercise promotes greater fat loss; fad diets, on the other hand, may cause a loss of lean body mass.

5. Suppresses the appetite: Moderate levels of activity can decrease the appetite because the body is somewhat tricked into thinking it is full.

All types of physical activity from the PA pyramid can be beneficial to weight control. Moderate PA is especially effective because people of all ages and abilities can perform it. It can be maintained for long periods of time and results in significant calorie expenditure. Long-term studies show that 60 or more minutes of moderate activity, such as walking, is quite effective for long-term weight loss and maintenance.

Research results suggest that although people who combine diet with exercise may not lose that many more calories, they will keep the weight off more easily.

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Healthy Eating Patterns

Eat breakfast every day.

Consider eating smaller and more frequent meals.

Eat less fat.

Increase water consumption.

Restrict consumption of empty calories—foods that provide little nutrition.

Increase complex carbohydrates.

Review Lab 16A

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The guidelines presented here highlight healthy eating patterns that can be maintained over time.

Discuss the difference between cravings and hunger. Hunger is a physiological phenomenon that is a result of the body’s need to supply energy to sustain life. A craving is simply a desire to eat something, sometimes even a food you do not particularly like. When you feel the urge to eat, you may want to ask yourself, “Is this real hunger or a craving?” Hunger is accompanied by growling of the stomach and is most likely to occur after long periods without food. If you have the urge to eat soon after a meal, it is probably from craving, not hunger.

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Weight Loss Calculations

1 pound of fat = 3,500 calories

Maximum weight loss should be no more than 1 to 2 pounds per week.

500 calories/day × 7 days/week = 3,500 calories/week (1 pound)

1,000 calories/day × 7 days/week = 7,000 calories/week (2 pounds)

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The following represent some general weight loss calculations.

1 pound of fat contains 3,500 calories; therefore, to lose 1 pound of fat a person must have a deficit of 3,500 calories.

To give students a perception of this amount, give them some examples:

1. The average diet is approximately 2,000 calories per day, so a 1-pound deficit (3,500 calories) represents nearly 2 days’ worth of food.

2. One mile burns off about 100 calories, so a 1-pound deficit (3,500 calories) amounts to nearly 35 miles of walking/jogging.

The maximum weight loss per week should be no more than 1 to 2 pounds to permit a healthy and “livable” diet. Use examples to show the necessary deficit per day, and mention that it is easiest to create a greater caloric deficit if efforts at reducing intake and increasing expenditure are combined.

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Different Settings, Different Strategies

Think about how to make good food selections in different settings.

When shopping

In the home environment

In the work environment

On special occasions

At restaurants

How you eat also matters a great deal.

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Review the lengthy suggestions given in Table 2 in the book.

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Problems with Fad Diets

With fad diets, weight loss is often water loss.

Supplements may be dangerous.

The diet may lack essential nutrients.

Metabolism may slow down if caloric intake is very low.

Artificial sweeteners and fat substitute do not provide a long-term solution.

Most simply do not work.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The main problem with fad diets is that they are inherently temporary. If the change is not a part of a healthy lifestyle, adherence will be poor.

The weight loss that is seen is often water loss and is gained back very quickly.

Diet treatments (appetite suppressants) can often be addictive and or dangerous.

Fad diets may lack essential vitamins and minerals and create health problems.

Extreme caloric restriction may also cause the body’s metabolism to slow down and resist further weight loss.

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Example of Quackery: “Lipodissolve”

The treatment called Lipodissolve is not approved by the FDA, and it has not been proven to be effective.

Moreover, it can cause permanent scarring, skin deformation, and deep painful knots under the skin.

Remember: There are no quick fixes!

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Products and procedures claiming to remove fat cells are not safe or effective. A procedure known as “Lipodissolve” claims that it is possible to remove fat cells from the body with chemicals. A small amount of a chemical found in lecithin—a food ingredient derived from soybeans—is injected into fatty areas of the body, such as the buttocks or thighs. The fat absorbs the substance, resulting in an inflammation, followed by a hardening of the fat cells in the area. The fat cells are then allegedly eliminated from the body.

The FDA has not approved the procedure, and the safety and effectiveness of the procedure has not been demonstrated by scientific evidence. However, there are reports of the procedure being marketed as a “quick fix” that “burns fat away with an injection.”

Companies promoting the injections have marketed them as a dietary supplement because the active ingredient (lecithin) has been approved for human consumption by mouth. However, because it is injected, the FDA has viewed the product as a drug and has ordered the manufacturer to stop marketing and distributing the product, due to safety concerns.

16

Cycle of Dieting

Often, a diet cycle goes like this:

Diet begins

Strong initial motivation

Positive results seen

Trouble complying is experienced

Diet “fails” and self-blame is common

Inspiration is regained

Diet begins

Because setbacks are common, it is important to adopt relapse prevention strategies.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

People begin a diet and have good initial motivation. They may see some initial positive results but eventually they will have trouble with compliance (party, eating out, stress). They may give up and blow their diet and gain the weight back. Eventually, people regain inspiration and decide to try again.

Because of the initial positive results, most people blame themselves and believe that dieting works. They keep trying new diets to try to find one that they can live with. Because most “diets” are inherently short-term they will all fail when people come off of the diet. Only long-term lifestyle changes will be effective in keeping the weight off.

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Summary

Energy balance is key.

Understanding today’s obesogenic environment can help you plan strategies for meeting your goals.

Behavior change principles for weight control:

Set realistic behavior goals.

Use moderation.

Be consistent.

Find and use social support.

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

1. Set realistic behavioral (not outcome-based) goals. Weight takes a while to put on and therefore it takes time to take it off.

2. Be moderate in your behavior change efforts. Extreme changes will not be easy to maintain.

3. Be consistent in your behavior. It is okay to splurge or miss a day of exercise; just get back to it the next day.

4. Seek out positive social support (family, friends).

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APPENDIX A

Lab information and discussion activity

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Discussion Activity

The energy balance equation is the key to weight management. How important is counting your calories?

RETURN TO PRESENTATION

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This is a thought-provoking discussion question because it is not healthy to obsess about counting your calories in and calories out. With that said, many people are unaware of the number of empty calories they are consuming, so counting calories and keeping records for a period of time is often beneficial, helping to determine where changes can be made to improve health.

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Lab 16A Information

Selecting Strategies for Managing Eating

From Chart 1, select strategies that you might find useful.

Discuss your personal experiences with eating and describe your need for employing these strategies in your life.

RETURN TO PRESENTATION

©McGraw-Hill Education.

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Lab 16B Information

Evaluating Fast Food Options

Compute the intake of calories, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol from a typical fast food meal.

Compare values to recommended amounts to see how fast food meals influence daily intakes.

Discuss the results.

RETURN TO PRESENTATION

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APPENDIX B

Alternative text for slide images

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Figure 2 Social and environmental components of the obesogenic environment Appendix

Individual factors: Excess calories plus low activity result in weight gain.

Environmental influences: Easy access to junk food, high-fat, empty calories, large portion sizes, friends and family, passive entertainment, sedentary work and play, lack of active places

Settings/places that may contribute: Vending machines, fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, workplaces, homes, schools, businesses and stores, cities and roads, parks

Societal sectors that have influence: the food industry;
the health-care industry; the advertising industry; government (federal/state/local) policy; the entertainment industry; the transportation industry; the insurance industry

Return to previous slide

©McGraw-Hill Education.

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