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ANSWER EACH IN 250 WORDS
Briefly state the differences between relativism and the dialectical method. Who do you think is correct, the sophists or Socrates and Plato? Both? Neither? Explain your answer.
· Assess Plato’s theory of the Forms from Aristotle’s standpoint. Is Aristotle correct? Give good reasons for your answer.
· Briefly summarize Aquinas’ argument from change, the first of his five ways. Apply one of d’Ailly’s objections to the argument. Do you agree with d’Ailly that human reason is limited regarding proofs of the existence of God? Explain your answer.
· Hobbes, Locke, and Berkeley each write about the human will. After researching those passages, briefly state whether each philosopher thinks the will is free or determined. In your opinion, who is correct? Explain your answer.
· Describe what Hume means when he says that reason is the slave of the passions. Do you agree with Hume that passion—in other words, sentiment—motivates people to act morally and that reason is enslaved to those passions? Explain your answer.
· Kant thinks that everyone has a duty to act from respect for the moral law by obeying the supreme principle of morality. Kant thinks therefore that there is never a right to lie. If you agree with Kant, state why you think he is correct. If Kant is incorrect, give an example that shows that Kant’s position is absurd, in other words, that, in at least one instance, telling the truth would do more harm than good.
· Think of present-day Western culture: films, music, advertisement. Do you see progress in the attempt to end what Wollstonecraft calls “sexual virtues”? Do you think instead that things are as bad or worse than what Wollstonecraft describes, or do you think that Wollstonecraft is wrong to claim the existence of “sexual virtues” to begin with? Give examples to explain your answer.
· Decide on and write down a plan for how to justify your life by undertaking a meaningful project with others; support your plan by drawing from Simone de Beauvoir’s thought. de Beauvoir thought that our lives are only authentic when we are freely engaging in projects that other free people will ultimately judge as worthy or not. Do not focus on what other people will think about your project, instead focus on your freedom to do whatever you want to do. Remember, in de Beauvoir’s thought God is dead so you are free to do whatever you would like – but other free people will ultimately “be God” too and judge your project. The key here is your personal freedom to decide what you will do with your life – you, and only you, control that decision.