1 DSRT 8 7: 2.1 SCHOLARLY ABRSTRACT ASSIGNMENT #1 – QUANTITATIVE
Relati nship Between Female Leadership Styles and Empl yee Engagement
Bibli graphic Citati n
Ghani, F. A., Derani, N. E. S., Aznam, N., Mohamad, N., Zakaria, S. A. A., & Toolib, S. N.
(2018). An empirical investigation of the relationship between transformational,
transactional female leadership styles and employee engagement. Global usiness and
Management Research, 10( ), 724.
Auth r Qualificati ns
Fadhilah Abdul Ghani, Nor Emmy Shuhada Derani, Neezlin Aznam, Norfatihah Mohamad, Siti
Aimi Athirah Zakaria, Siti Norhidayah Toolib
Research C ncern
Most studies concerning leadership styles focus on male leaders, while there has been little
research involving female leadership styles and their impacts on employee engagement within
organizations. Female leaders have to overcome stereotypes of being poor leaders, and the
research will provide ideologies of whether transformational or transactional leadership styles of
female leaders affect employee engagement.
Research Purp se Statement AND Research Questi ns r Hyp theses
The purpose of this research was to highlight the transformational and transactional leadership
styles of female leaders and the respective impact on employee engagement. Specifically, the
focus was on whether there was a correlation between transformational and transactional female
leader styles (independent variables) and employee engagement (dependent variable) within
Government Linked Companies in Malaysia.
A lack of research has been conducted that looks at female leadership styles and their
corresponding impact on employee engagement. Most research on leadership styles and employee
engagement has been conducted from a general leadership view and not focused on female
leadership styles. There are perceptions that male leaders are better leaders and have more positive
impacts on employee engagement. The research will identify a direct correlation between
transformational and transactional leadership styles, their impact on employee engagement, and if
the research supports those female leaders are as influential as male leaders.
Research Meth d l gy
175 research questionnaires were distributed to Government Link Companies (GLC) employees in
Kuala Lumpur, and 11 questionnaires were returned. Due to limited resources, an actual number
of female leaders within GLC could not be identified.
Statistically Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 2 was used to analyze the 11
questionnaires in this research.
2 DSRT 8 7: 2.1 SCHOLARLY ABRSTRACT ASSIGNMENT #1 – QUANTITATIVE
Overall, the study results show a strong positive correlation between female transformational and
transactional leadership styles (independent variables) and employee engagement (dependent
Tables and statistical measures were used to identify the findings of the research. Cronbach’s
Alpha Coefficient was used to compute the Variables Reliability Results. The Pearson Correlation
was used to analyze the correlation summary of leadership styles and employee engagement.
The study results overcome the issue of female leaders being perceived as poor leaders and are just
as successful as male leaders. The research method supports that employees are engaged whether
female leaders possess transformational or transactional leadership styles. The research methods
tested that female leaders effectively engage their employees and are just as successful at leading
as male leaders.
2 Running Head: 2.1 Week 2
Darko, J., Zakaria, A. A., &Uzonwanne, G. C. (2016). Corporate governance: The impact of
director and board structure, ownership structure and corporate control on the
performance of listed companies on theghana stock exchange. Corporate
Governance, 16(2), 259-277. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CG-11-2014-0133
JosephineDarko, Zakaria AliAribi PhD, and Godfrey C. Uzonwanne PhD
It is evident that good corporate governance provides the ability to improve the competitive
advantage, efficiency, and effectiveness of companies (Maher &Anderson, 2000). There is little
research that has looked at corporate governance in developing countries such as Ghana. Previous
studies also provide mixed findings on thedirections of causality between corporate governance
and firmperformance. This paper explores seven hypotheses. H1: A positive association exists
between the number of non-executive directors and firm performance. H2: A negative association
exists between the number of directors and firmperformance. H3: Apositive association exists
between the presenceof females on the board of directors and firm performance. H4: A positive
association exists between block-holder ownership and firmperformance. H5: Anegative
association exists between state ownership and firm performance. H6: A negative association
exists between audit committee size and firm performance. H7: A positive relationship exists
between the frequency of audit committee meetings and firm performance.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate governance and firm
performance of listed Ghanaian companies.
A number of previous studies investigated the role of governance mechanisms in resolving
conflicts of interest between shareholder and manager in improving performance (Cubbin &
Leech, 1983). The indecisive nature of the literature as it relates to whether there is a relationship
between firm performance and corporate governance is the purposeof this paper. Previous studies
find a relationship between board composition and theprofitability of firms in the sense that as the
number of independent directors increases, the level of the firm performance also increases (Arbor
& Biekpe, 2007). However, Agrawal& Knoeber (1996);Hermalin & Weisbach (2001) and Azeez
(2015) conclude that outsiders on the board does not help performance. Previous studies have
investigated the association between board size and firm performance (Kiel &Nicholson, 2003;
Adams & Mehran, 2005;Dalton &Dalton, 2005). Earlier works have been attributed to Lipton &
Lorsch (1992) and Jensen (1993). Gender diversity on boards is a highly debated topic, which has
received a tremendous amount of attention of policymakers, researchers, and shareholders
3 Running Head: 2.1 Week 2
(Chapple &Humphrey, 2014). Davis (2011) has offered abusiness case for increasing the number
of women on corporate boards. The level of concentration of ownership structure has implications
(Kuznetsov & Muravyev, 2001). Companies with concentrated ownership have less agency
problems (Zhuang, 1999; Al-Najjar &Abed, 2014). Empirical studies for the relationship between
firm performance and state ownership have mixed results (Bos, 1991; Jiang et al., 2008; Liao &
Young, 2012). Other studies present a negative effect (Chen et al., 2005;Wei, 2007; Mahmood et
al., 2011). There are anumber of studies that reported a positive relationship between board size
and firmperformance (Dalton et al., 1999). On the other hand, Vafeas (1999), Mohd Saleh et al.
(2007) and ElMir & Seboui (2008) suggest that larger audit committee size can lead to inefficient
governance. It has been argued that inactive audit committees are unlikely to monitor management
effectively (Menon & Williams, 1994). Mohd Saleh et al.(2007) argued that audit committees
with a small number of meetings are less likely to havegood monitoring. A positive relationship
was established between the frequency of audit committee meetings and firmperformance
(Raghunandan &Rama, 2007; Sharma et al., 2009).
This study focuses on 20 of the 34 listed companies on the Ghana Stock Exchange across a five-
year period (2008-2012). Variables such as return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA), net
profit margin (NPM), and Tobin’s Q (TBQ) were adopted. A pool panel regression and an
ANOVA analysis were used to establish the presence of a significant relationship between the
dependent and independent variables. In this study, corporate governance structurewas the
independent variable, while corporate performance was thedependent variable. The research
adopts a model similar to that adopted by Abor &Biekpe (2007), who used firm performance as a
function of board and ownership structure. The general panel regression model for analyzing
cross-sectional and time series data is adopted and further expanded to include all the indices
covered in the study.
The data set for the research was primarily secondary data consisting of longitudinal and cross-
sectional data. The sources of data include annual reports and financial statements of the listed
companies. Director information and board structure, board gender, ownership and corporate
control information was acquired from web sites, and annual reports of the various companies.
A multicollinearity test was conducted that showed the independent variables did not have a strong
correlation among themselves. The regression results showed that smaller boards are more
efficient than larger boards. Companies with a relatively lower number of non-executive directors
tend to perform better in terms of ROA than companies with a larger percentage of non-executive
directors. The number of times audit meetings wereheld in a firmnegatively affected ROA. An
increase in thenumber of non-executives on the board negatively impacted ROE. Board gender
was shown to have apositive and significant influence on NPM. The ANOVA Analysis found that
companies with smaller boards performed better on NPM, but there was no significant impact on
ROE, ROA, or TBQ. Asmaller number of non-executive directors led to better financial
performance in ROE and NPM, but there was no significant impact on ROA or TBQ. An increase
4 Running Head: 2.1 Week 2
in performance was identified for ROA, NPM and TBQ, as the number of females on the board
became greater than two. The proportion of outstanding shares owned by the top 20 %
shareholders did have a significant impact on NPM. There was a significant reduction in ROA as
state ownership is increased. Companies with a larger audit committee size had an increased ROA.
The same impact on ROA was found with increasing audit committee meeting frequency, but also
improved ROE, NPM and TBQ. The age of the firm was found to have a significant impact on
ROA, NPM, and TBQ. H1, H2, H5, H6, and H7 are rejected. H3 and H4 are supported.
This study examined the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance of listed
firms in Ghana. The corporate governance indictors used wereboard size, the number of non-
executive members of the board, board gender, ownership structure, audit committee size and
frequency of meetings. The study demonstrated mixed results in terms of the impact of corporate
governance on firm performance. This demonstrates theneed for a uniform corporate governance
code for companies operating in emerging markets and for company-specific approaches based on
good governance practices. Across all the indicators used, the results demonstrated overwhelming
support for the positive impact of good corporate governance on firm performance.
Suggestions for FurtherResearch
A major limitation of the study is that the data used was collected from annual reports and may not
have been a true reflection of the state of affairs of the company. A study covering awider period
could improve thequality of the results generated. Future studies could provide deeper insight into
the specific impact corporate governance has on various industries based on their peculiar
characteristics and operations. Increasing the number of variables explored by studying the impact
of CEO tenure, duality, board equity ownership, executive compensation, and remuneration
committees on performance would increase the validity of the relationship between good corporate
governance and firmperformance.
Abstra t Assignment 2.1
Abstra t 2.1:
Bibliog aphic Citation
Kelloway, K. E., Turner, N., Barling, J., & Loughlin, C. (2012). Transformational leadership and
employee psy hologi al well-bing: The mediating role of employee trust in leadership.
Work & tress, 26(1), 39-55. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2012.660774
Kevin E. Kelloway, Ni k Turner, Julian Barling, Catherine Loughlin
Resea ch Conce n
The theory of transformational leadership has been one of the most resear hed theories out of all
the leadership theories out there. Other resear h has suggested that low-quality leadership has
negative effe ts on employees; however, it is important to look into how high-quality leadership
an impa t employees. Not only should the effe ts of high-quality, or transformational leadership,
be explored as having positive effe ts on employees, but also if there are other fa tors in play.
Therefore, the resear hers in this arti le are primarily fo used on whether or not there is a
orrelation between trust in leadership and employee well-being.
The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between employees’ per eptions of
their managers’ transformational leadership style and those employees’ psy hologi al well-being,
as well as whether or not trust in leadership plays a mediating role.
P ecedent Lite atu e
There has been mu h resear h attention given to transformational leadership theory; in fa t, more
than all of the other leadership theories ombined. The transformational leadership theory has been
dubbed superior in terms of leadership performan e. Resear h has been ondu ted and linked low-
quality leadership to that of negatively impa ting employee’s well-being with in reased levels of
stress and distress, anxiety, depression, and psy hosomati symptoms among others. The
omponents of transformational leadership that were proposed by bass and Avolio (also referred to
as full range leadership theory) are extremely relevant to positive employee psy hologi al well-
being. Most of the previous resear h has fo used on on eptualizing leadership behaviors that
in orporate both leadership and management instead of the spe ifi omponents of
transformational leadership. Nielsen and olleagues began to look into the indire t relationships
between transformational leadership and employee well-being, and also how long the positive
effe ts might last. The parti ular study of Kelloway, Turner, Barling, and Loughlin repli ated and
expanded on previous resear h in two separate studies.
Resea ch Methodology
For Study 1, a sample of 436 fieldworkers (71% male) in a large Canadian tele ommuni ations
organization, rated their first line supervisors to gather information regarding three measures:
transformational leadership, trust in leadership, and psy hologi al well-being.
Transformational leadership was measured through 20 items that were taken from the
Multifa torial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X) and ombined to form a unidimensional
reliable measure. Trust in leadership was measured with four items from Cook and Wall’s six-item
measure. Psy hologi al well-being was measured using the 12-item version of the General Health
Variabl M SD 1 2 3
1. Transformational l ad rship (individual) 10.423.14
2. Transformational l ad rship (aggr gat d) 10.442.04.66**
3. Trust in l ad rship 4.95 0.86.46** .30**
4. GHQ 22.303.94−.14*−.09 −.24**
Not : GHQ = G n ral H alth Qu stionnair .
For Study 2, advertisements were sent to 1000 employed parti ipants through an on-line servi e
that is designed to onne t resear hers to a roster of potential parti ipants. There were 328
employed respondents, and of those, 269 of them fit the riteria for the study and ompleted the
survey. The average age of the parti ipants (151 men, 173 women) was approximately 38 years,
and the estimated age of their supervisors was 43.5 years. The level of edu ation for the
parti ipants was 15% attending and/or ompleting high s hool as highest level of edu ation; 57%
had attended and/or ompleted ollege; and 27% attended and/or ompleted graduate edu ation.
The data being olle ted was that of transformational leadership, transa tional leadership, trust in
leadership, employee psy hologi al well-being, liking of the leader, and personality.
Pr dictor W ll-b ingTrust W ll-b ing
Group-l v l transformational l ad rship .03 −.01 .03
Individual-l v l transformational l ad rship −.19* −.13**−.05
Trust in l ad rship –– –– 1.03**
For Study 1, simple paper-and-pen il surveys were sent through regular mail to the leaders, who
were then asked to give out the surveys to up to eight of their employees. The employees then
filled them out and returned them to the senior author with the use of a postage-paid envelope. All
parti ipants were assured that the surveys were kept onfidential.
For Study 2, an advertisement was sent to 1000 employed parti ipants through Study Response, an
on-line servi e designed to onne t resear hers to a roster of potential parti ipants. On e
parti ipants were se ured, they were sent a se ure link in whi h they were able to omplete the
The results of Study 1 isolated the dire t role transformational leadership has on employee well-
being and identifying trust as a path through whi h this o urs. Study 2 showed that transa tional
leadership wielded the opposite effe ts on employees’ well-being ompared to those of
These studies were able to repli ate and extend findings from previous resear h that demonstrated
the positive relationship between transformational leadership and employee psy hologi al well-
being. What this does is advan es our understanding of employee- entered out omes. These
studies also provided insight into how high quality and poor-quality leadership an both impa t
employees well-being. Finally, the resear hers were able to ex lude plausible onfounds su h as
liking of the leader and respondent personality. This resear h will be able to help promote future
resear h and development into transformational leadership as an intervention to enhan e
psy hologi al well-being in the workpla e.
Suggestions fo Fu the Resea ch
Based off the findings of this resear h, it would be interesting for future resear h to look into
whether or not transformational leadership would indire tly influen e the leaders’ own well-being,
and not just that of the employees. Another plausible thought for future resear h would be whether
transformational leadership effe ts an be transmitted through other leader behaviors. The world of
resear h surrounding leaderships ability to affe t the well-being of those around them is vast, and
we are just getting started.
- Quantitative Abstract
- Bibliographic Citation
- Research Concern
- Precedent Literature
- Research Methodology
- Suggestions for Further Research