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THE MEDIATING ROLE OF GREEN BUILDING BETWEEN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND ARCHITECTURE ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE IN YEMEN GOVERNMENT


CHAPTER THREE




RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Table of Contents
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
List of Table ii
List of Figure ii
3.1. Introduction 1
3.2. Research Design 1
The Research Plan 2
3.3. Research Approach 3
3.4 Population and Sampling Design 4
3.4.1 Population 4
3.4.2 Sampling Design 5
3.4.2.1 Sampling Frame 5
3.3.2.2 Sampling Technique 5
3.3.2.3 Sample Size 6
3.4. Questionnaire Development 6
3.5. Pilot study 11
3.6. Questionnaire Distribution 12
3.7. Content Validity Analysis 12
3.8. Readability 13
3.9. Main Study Data Collection 13
3.10. Methods for Data Analysis 14
3.10.1 Data Editing and Data Coding 14
3.10.2 Data screening 14
3.10.3 Analysis Tools 15
3.11 Chapter Summary 15
References 16




List of Table



Table
3.
1
:
Target Population Category





5





Table




3.




2




:






Target


Sample


Category






6



Table
3.
3
:
N
umerical labels





7



Table
3.
4
:
Summary of Assessment Factors





7



Table
3.
5
:
the measurements of the construct





8



Table
3.
6
:
Assessment Items





8



Table
3.
7
:
List of Assessors





13



Table
3.
8
:
Correlation coefficient of each paragraph of
” Total quality Management
” and the total of this field





13



Table
3.
9
:
Correlation coefficient of each paragraph of
” Green Building
” and the total of this field





14




Table


3.


10


:


Correlation coefficient of each paragraph of




Architecture Organization Performance

” and the total of this field






15



Table
3.
11
:
Correlation coefficient of each field and the whole of questionnaire





16



Table
3.
12
:
Cronbach’s Alpha for each filed of the questionnaire





16




Table


3.


13


:

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test





17



List of Figure




Figure
3.
1
: Frame work





2



Figure
3.
2
: Inductive reasearch





4



Figure
3.
3
: dedctive reasearch





4


1



3.1. Introduction

This chapter is based on analyzing the information as well as techniques and methods that will be applied in order to gather detailed information which will be presented in data analysis. Research is defined as a systematic and exploratory practice that has the potential to increase the existing knowledge and uncovers different new kind of facts .

The detailed description of the facts and to study the techniques as well as methods employed in order to gather desired data that is presented in the next chapter. Research is one of the systematic investigative practices that focus on to enhance the current knowledge and uncover different types of information which is drawn from several sources and presented in the procedure of research execution. The researcher focuses on to study the aim and analyzes the research in order to complete the study since this study is executed in department of architecture, in ministry of public works and urban development in Yemen to know the effect of the total quality management towords architecture organization performance in the presence of Green building as mediating. The key objective of this research is to review suitable practices to collect data and execute research in positive way.



3.2. Research Design

This research, the basic purpose to gather data in this study is with help of effective research design. The research design is concerned with to observe existing research and implement different activities in order to study the mediating role of green building between total quality management and architecture organization performance in department of architecture, in ministry of public works and urban development in Yemen.The approach of selection in this research is based with completion of the study. There are several techniques applied as research approach
.
The study adopted a descriptive research design. A descriptive study refers to determining the frequency with which something occurs or the relationship between variables (Cantelmi., Di Gravio & Patriarca, 2021). This approach is appropriate for this study, because the researcher intends to collect detailed information through description and is useful for identifying variables and hypothetical constructs (Huyler & McGill, 2019). This method provides descriptions of the variables in order to answer the research questions in the study. It was therefore be an efficient way to use to obtain information needed to describe the mediating role of green building between total quality management and architecture organization performance in Yemen.



The Research Plan

In this manner look into utilizing the viability of the mediating role of green building between total quality management and architecture organization performance in Yemen government incorporates gathering data fundamentally so as to take care of existing issues and improve execution in department of architecture, in ministry of public works and urban development in Yemen. Right now, look into is initially gathering data about the circumstance in the department of architecture worker and the issues confronting it.

At that point, furthermore gathering data fundamentally about the potential methods for changing, improving, or building up the present condition of the department of architecture. Right now the last stage is to propose a model and draw a structure about how the current issues could be explained and how to improve the exhibition of the department of architecture by of green building between total quality management.

According to Wiersma and Jurs (2017, p.4) the method of the mediating role of green building between total quality management and architecture organization performance in Yemen government might be summarized in five main steps: identifying the matter, reviewing information, collecting data, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. during this study, the stages within the research plan described as in Figure (3.1):


Figure 3.1: Frame work

Diagram Description automatically generated



3.3. Research Approach

This research implements quantitative approaches for analysis of data. Quantitative research approach is a scientific and systematic practice that investigates the key research phenomena and also its application in statistical analysis.

This study makes use of research approach that helps in careful examination and observation of research work in productive manner (Ishtiaq, 2019). The research approach in this study comprises of details of different activities and handles the unstructured approach that depends on small samples in order to study about the specific scenario.

The research approach in this study provides information in detailed manner about the topic of research and reviews the activities on daily basis since it incorporates deductive and inductive research approach. In this study, there is
inductive research
approach applied that is engaged to highlight the information and progresses from specific to general (Huyler & McGill, 2019), Figure (3.1) “Inductive Research” outlines the steps involved with an inductive approach to research.


Figure 3.2: Inductive reasearch

Source: Ishtiaq, 2019

While
ductive research
take the steps described earlier for inductive research and reverse their order. They start with a social theory that they find compelling and then test its implications with data. That is, they move from a more general level to a more specific one. A deductive approach to research is the one that people typically associate with scientific investigation. The researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon he or she is studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories. Figure (3.2) “Deductive Research”outlines the steps involved with a deductive approach to research.


Figure 3.3: dedctive reasearch

Source: Ishtiaq, 2019

In clear words, this study analyzes the direct influence of general findings and use specific details about the mediating role of green building between total quality management and architecture organization performance in Yemen Government.



3.4 Population and Sampling Design




3.4.1 Population

Population can be defined as a complete set of elements (persons or objects) that possess some common characteristic defined by the sampling criteria established by the researcher (Sanders, 2019). Target population on the other hand is the specific population about which information is desired (Kothari & Garg, 2017). This definition ensures that population of interest is homogeneous. Population studies are more representative because everyone has an equal chance to be included in the final sample that is drawn (Sanders, 2019). The target population was limited to 800 formal employees at Department of Architecture, in Ministry of Public Works and Urban Development in Yemen. Therefore, the researcher is used survey data of the manager of Department of Architecture of Yemen.



Table 3.1: Target Population Category

Population Frequency

Percentage

Top Level Management

56

7.0

Senior Management

228

28.5

Heads of department

452

56.5

Architecture staff

64

8.0

Total

800

100.0



3.4.2 Sampling Design




3.4.2.1 Sampling Frame

The sampling frame is defined as the set of source materials from which the sample is drawn. It provides a means by which particular members of the target population are chosen (Luketić, 2017). The sampling frame in essence is a complete list of all the cases in the population from which a sample is drawn (Kombo & Tromp, 2018). Since a researcher rarely has direct access to the entire population of interest in social science research, a researcher must rely upon a sampling frame to represent all of the elements of the population of interest (Kombo & Tromp, 2018). The sampling frame for this study focused on top level management, Senior Management, Heads of department and Architecture staff.



3.3.2.2 Sampling Technique

According to Sanders )2019) sampling is that part of statistical practice which is concerned with the selecting of a subset of individual observations within a population with intention of yielding some knowledge about the population of concern, necessary for making predictions based on statistical inference. Sampling technique is the procedure a researcher uses to gather people, places or things to study (Kombo & Tromp, 2018). The researcher used a stratified random sampling technique because the population was not homogenous and could be divided into small groups or strata for the sample to be fully representative of the population. As noted by (Sanders) 2019) this sampling technique is able to provide a more accurate and representative sample from populations that are non-homogeneous. The technique also eliminates bias since every population element has the same chance of being selected.



3.3.2.3 Sample Size

For quantitative data collection an appropriate sample size was computed to achieve the true proportion at 95% confidence level. To calculate the sample size of the population, the study used the Yamane’s formula (1967).

n=N/ 1+N(e)2

Where n is the sample size, N is the population size, and e is the level of precision (0.05).

n= 800/(1+800(0.05)2)

=800 /3

=266

Sanders (2019) explain a sample to be a small group that is obtained from an accessible population. It is further recommended that a sample of at least 10% of the total population was be used as a representation for true and accurate data. The sample size had 130 employees and were deemed representative as it conforms Sanders (2019) argument.





Table 3.2:


Target Sample Category

Sample size

Percentage

Management

20

7.5

Senior managers

76

28.5

Heads of department

150

56.5

Architecture staff

20

7.5

Total

266

100.0



3.4. Questionnaire Development

In this study, a questionnaire survey, has been used to provide quantitative data as a part of the case study. The process of designing and developing the questionnaire was carried out after gaining a comprehensive understanding from interviewing senior managers in the subject. In addition, the researcher conducted an extensive review of the most relevant literature that included, among others, books, journals, articles, internet materials, and PhD theses. Furthermore, the researcher reviewed previous questionnaires on the subject of TQM in order to draw up the final version of the questionnaire. This was done in order to ensure that the content and the structure of the questionnaire are completely valid

The study used questionnaires as a data collection tool. According to Cooper and Schindler (2020) primary data are sought for their p

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