Tutor Help t employing specific ty of personality in- n. It may also be Ie forced-choice for- ity inventoty. ]. appl. on Personal Inventory. utvey of I

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t employing specific
ty of personality in-
n. It may also be
Ie forced-choice for-

ity inventoty. ]. appl.

on Personal Inventory.

utvey of Interpersonal

ication and eXtension.

: Harcourt, Brace &

:e personality test un.
/Chol., 1956, 40, 258.

,I. Psychol., 1956,40,

Psychological Reports, 1965, 17, 851·868. © Southern Universities Press 1965
Monograph Supplement 3·V17



Institute for Behavioral Research, Silver Spring, Md”

Mariral Case 1 . . .. .. .. .. . . .__…._. . ._______ 856
Marital Case 2 -0 -0 -0 .. • 859
Study Case 1: Handwriting . -0. ._______________________________________ 860
Smdy Case 2: Smdy Problem . . __ 863
References _. . . .. .. -0__ 868

Summary.-A rationale for the use of self·control procedures in counseling
is presented, along with illustrative material from several case studies. Self·
control, as used here, involves specification of rhe behavioral deficit or desired
behaviors which are lacking, and having S himself set up or program the co~,
tions which may produce the desired behavioral modification. The proced~
selected are extensions from laboratory research in operant modification of be·
havior, and the counseling sessions may include training S in behavior analysis,
with his own behaviors as the experimental data.

The present discussion is concerned with the application of self-control
procedures to the solution of certain limited behavioral problems.

Often one person comes for help from another because he cannot cope with
problems that face him. The appropriate behaviors are not available. The means
by which the behavioral deficit can be overcome are varied. Simple instrtlctions
often suffice, as when S cannot study because he does not have the assignment.
On the other hand, S may not be able to study because he cannot allocate his
time appropriately, because he daydreams at his desk, or because he engages in
other behaviors ,,:l11ch come under the general heading of lack of self-contro!’
In these cases, simple instructions will not remedy the deficit since S himself
knows what it is. He has often tried to instruct himself to behave appropriately
but with little success. Indeed, the numerous jokes surrounding New Year’s
resolutions indicate both the prevalence of the problem and the ineffectiveness of
its instructional solution, whether imposed by others or by one’s self in self-

The specific behavioral deficit, or presenting problem, is often parr of a
larger context of deficits. Rather than trying to overcome the presenting deficit

‘Paper presented at Eastern Psychological Association, April 23, 1965. Written under
contract between the Office of the Surgeon General and the Washington School of Psychi·
atry, DA-49·193·MD·2448. The views expressed herein are those of the author and do
not necessarily reflect rhe views of either contracting agency.
2Research Career Development Award, 1963·1968, at the Institute for Behavioral Research.
Also on appointment as Professor of Psychology, Arizona Srare University, Tempe.
“Address for reprints: 2426 Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Maryland.

directly, the therapist may turn his attention to other, “deeper” behaviors or be-
havioral deficits. In this case, the presenting problem is considered a symptom,
by exactly the same defining operations that make a skin rash a symptom. Here,
the dermatologist states that to get rid of the rash he will treat in addition some-
thing else, possibly a blood imbalance, rather than only treating the rash itself
(Goldiamond, Dyrud, & Miller, 1965). For example, we know of a woman
who assumed a fetal posture for three days after an argument with her husband.
She was restored to mobility by direct modification of this behavior. It can be
argued that a woman who maintains control over her husband by such extreme
behaviors is so lacking in more appropriate behaviors that her treatment will
require considerably more than the two hours which restored her mobility. This
case may be an example of treating a symptom, since behaviors other than the
presenting complaint may also require modification. Ho~ng’.,-,
problem can still be considered as a behavioral one: in this case, the absence of
thos~behavlOrs whereby wives normally comror-melr1iu~ba:nds:—Yef this gen-
eral deficit also~ treated directly, as in our research on stuttering wh~~ew-~­
have, withm the labora:rory-;-repia:mt stuttering by fluent and rapid speech in 30
of 30 cases run thus far (Goldiamond, 1965b). Indeed, one of our stuttering
patients, who had been suicidal, became able to read bedtime stories to her chil-
dren at home, and certain other personal problems at home cleared up because
her stuttering cleared up. Some of her other behaviors were accordingJx–symp-
tomatic of stuttering (Goldiamond, 1965a), as w~ have defin~[ “symptom.”

If there is a danger in premature assignment of behavioral deficits as symp-
tomatic, there is also a danger in premature assumption that’ the alteration of the
presenting problem is the final solution. Further analysis in light of current
knowledge will undoubtedly both modify and confirm practice in this area.

Classification of behavior as a problem for treatment or as a symptom may
also be an economic or contractual matter. For example, in a marital problem,
the presenting complaint may be cleared up in a shaft period of time, but other
problems are sometimes uncovered which may require extensive treatment. At
what point is the implicit contract between patient and therapist (d. Sulzer,
1962) to treat the marital behaviors extended to behaviors in other areas? The
answer to this question must depend on the extent to which S can afford the
treatment or can afford not to get it, that is, can do without it. It would be nice
to have a new car when the present one seems to require extensive repairs, but
there may be other considerations such as a piano or a child’s education. For
going to and from work, minor adjustments may be sufficient. The economy
may also be behavioral: is it worth the upset?

The present discussion will be limited to cases where the concern was with
a specified behavioral problem. These cases should be interpreted in the con-
text of the foregoing discussion: namely, that the procedures used are not in-






I “j<









eeper” behaviors or be-
considered a symptom,

rash a symptom. Here,
treat in addition some-
treating the rash itself
we know of a woman
nent with her husband.
lis behavior. It can be
lsband by such extreme
:hat her treatment will
,red her mobility. This
~haviors other than the
i'{ever, the “underlyi~
:lis case, -the absence of
rsbands. YeT this gen-_
on stuttering where we
and rapid speech in 30
, one of our stuttering
ime stories to her chil-
me cleared up because
“ere accordingly-symp_
tineH “symptom.”
“iotal deficits as symp-
at’ the alteration of the
sis in light of current
lcrice in this area.
or as a symptom may

. in a marital problem,
:iod of time, but other
tensive treatment. At
therapist (ct. Sulzer,

s in other areas? The
hich S Can afford the
t it. It would be nice
extensive repairs, but
hild’s education. For
icienr. The eCOnomy

the conCern was with
Iterpreted in the con.
ures useg are not in-


tended to question other more extensive procedures, which may be necessary~o!-..,
other kinds of behavioral deficits.

The discussion will be concerned with self-control .(Skinner, 1953) and..-l.-
procedures for its establishment. The procedures to be discussed cent~r around
the position that behavior is not an emergent property of an organism or a
property solely of its environment but is described by a f~mctional relatio~ ~e­
tween the two. More technically, given a specified behaVIOr B and a speCIfIed
environmental variable x, a lawful relation can be found, such that B = f(x),
under certain empirical constraining conditions c. This implies that when the
constraints c are set up, and x is set at a stipulated value, then B will have a stip-
ulated value, given by the value of B = f (x). When E sets x at that value, he
will get the B stipulated. This defines the experimental control of behavior
which has been demonstrated repeatedly in operant and other laboratories. When
S himself sets x at that value, he will get his own B, as stipulated. This defines

. self-control.

V If you want a s~ecified behavior from yoJltself, set up tb~~7’~!J
-you ~LcontroL.it.Jor example, if you cannot get up 1fi the mormng by
~ly resolving to do so and telling yourself that you must, buy and set an alarm

clock. Within this context, the Greek maxim, “Know thyself,” ttaos!llli;,S-.IDJO

-J.”, “Know thy behaviors, know thy environme!!~nd kn9~~f1ctig~~L~<:1~~ism
/ ~ween the two:7Jt1iougntnereTat1on~tween an alarm clock and waking up

‘is a simple andfu;;;iliar one, other relations are neither this simple nor this fa-
miliar. There have, however, been’developed in laboratories of operant behavior
a body of known functivnal relations between behavior, and programs and other
procedures which can alter even more complex behavior systematically. Self-
control derived from such research can take at least two forms. -One is to in-
struct S to set up the procedures which change his environment and which
thereby bring his behavior under different control. I shall present some cases
to this effect. ~Another form is to train him in the functional analysis of behav-
ior and have him try co determine for himself the procedures which he should
apply. This approach will also appear in the following cases.

Inherent in both types of self-control is the problem posed by the tremen-
dous gap between theory and practice. The same theory may dictate numerous
alternative methods or solutions, but all may not be equally available, practical, or
applicable. The operant EYadjgm. suggests that there are at least 12 different
ways to maintain or attenuate behavior (d. Holz & Azrin, 1963). Which are
appropriate to the problem?

One way for selecting effective practical measures is to have S report back
to E every week with his results. This hour becomes a session for analysis of data
and discussion of changes in procedure. In the laboratory, operant procedures are
so arranged that relations between ongoing behavior and its conditions are con-
tinuously observed and recorded. Through successes and failures, Es may learn

to analyze behavior and conditions and may develop a “feel” for their data, as do
other behavioral practitioners in interaction with their subject matter, for exam-
ple, skilled psychiatrists. Hopefully, such a program of systematic trial and anal-
ysis will sensitize S to his own behavior and his own conditions. By training S
in control procedures to the extent that these exist and are applicable, we are
providing for self-enhancement and self-actualization (Rogers, 1951). Of the
individuals who can apply control pro<;ed.!!res, S is the one most concerned with
his behavior and is most in contact with it, its conditions, and its consequences.
Initially E is the consultant, and eventually S becomes his own E. The procedures
may be limited to Ss who are intellectually capable of such analysis or who are
not otherwise incapacitated. Our Ss were mainly college students. Where sys-
tematic training in behavior analysis was used, the sessions started with indi-
vidual tutorials in behavior analysis, homework assignments from standard texts
(Holland & Skinner, 1961), and readings. Given this intellectual base, we could
move on to discussions of the problem in question.

Our first cases were referrals from clinical psychologists who felt that we
should work on some of the simpler overt problems, while they tackled their
deeper meanings. One of these was a young man who was overweight, and an-
Otller was a girl who had difficulty studying.

{j/ These two problems yielded, for these Ss, to procedures involving !!.irnuluJ _
;J1ltrol. The program with the young lady started with human engineering of
fier (fe;k. Since she felt sleepy when she studied, she was told to replace a 40-w
lamp with a good one and to turn her desk away from her bed. It was also de-
cided that her desk was to control study behavior. If she wished to write a
letter, she should do so but in the dining room; if she wished to read comic
books, she should do so but in the kitchen; if she wished to daydream, she
should do so but was to go to another room; at her desk she was to engage in her
school work and her school work only.

This girl had previously had a course in behavioral analysis and said, “I
know what you’re up to. You want that desk to assume stimulus control over
me. I’m not going to let any piece of wood run my life for me.”

“On the contrary,” I said, “you want that desk to run you. It is you who de-
cides when to put yourself under the control of your desk. It is like having a
sharpened knife in a drawer. You decide when to use it; but when you want it,
it is ready.”

After the first week of the regimen, she came to me and gleefully said, “1
spent only ten minutes at my desk last week.”

“Did you study there,” 1 asked.
“Yes, I did,” she said.
“Good,” I said, “let’s try to double that next week.”
For the next few weeks we did not meet, but she subsequently reported that


during the last month
her desk for four wed
When she sat at her c
desk. The variable f-
to an end was apparen

With regard to t
withdrawal of reinfor,
—-“.. .——–
~ood (Ferster, Le
hidden; it is kept in ;
the interests of the m

The initial strate
havior under the cant
stimulus. He was in:
desire. He was, howe
eari~while he watd
to eating when he at
plate and sit down ar
sequences such as wa
engaged in the beha
span ding to the refrig
sequences, as did gain
studying, and other ~
behaviors and conditi
man CUt out all eatin!
to me. We then wo
attending sessions. 1
slimmer and remarke’
solve his problems. I

No claim is mad
the Ss had no other p
started out with the si
have tried others. Se

An interesting a
very short time Ss ran
In some cases, 1 waul
how clinical psycholo
I attributed the tenur
zade effect. Scheher,
killed each bedmate :
vious wife to all wom
was not completed b)
the rest of the story, a

)p a “feel” for their data, as do
their subject matter, for exam-
1m of systematic trial and anal-
lwn conditions. By training 5
ist and are applicable, we are
tion (Rogers, 1951). Of the
; the one most concerned with
nditions, and its consequences.
1es his own E. The procedures
Ie of such analysis or who are
college students. Where sys-

:he sessions started with indi-
signments from standard texts
this intellectual base, we could

lsychologists who felt that we
1ems, while they tackled their
who was overweight, and an-

procedures involving stimulus—-d with human engineering of
,he was told to replace a 40-w
from her bed. It was also de-
Jr. If she wished to write a
if she wished to read comic

she wished to daydream, she
desk she was to engage in her

,havioral analysis and said, “I
assume stimulus control Over

1y life for me.”
to run you. It is you who de-
our desk. It is like having a
use it; but when you want it,

e to me and gleefully said, “I

k “e .
;he subsequently reported that


during the last month of the semester she was able to spend three hours a day at
her desk for four weeks in a row, something she had been unable to do previously.
When she sat at her desk she studied, and when she did other things she left her
desk. The variable maintaining this increase in behavior as the semester drew
to an end was apparently the forthcoming final examinations.

With regard to the young man,,~l!9,Qyer;lt~,gi111,1lIusC:(Jn~r91,,chaining, apd
withdr~walof reinforcement were used. The stimulus for overeating isnorlI)glly
~od7F~l”~rer, Levitt:ii·Yurnb;;r, 196i):-‘I~’~;~~~it~re, food is normally
hidden; ‘it is kept in a refrigerator or cupboard. In the cafeteria, where it is in
the interests of the management to get people to eat, food is exposed.

The ~iti~s,t!ategyfor~limming the I()tlflgl1la[lV3ls.t(),~£i[}g.~is eating,be-
havior under the c~~tl”oCof food’i[O’ne,sincefood is normallynot a”ailable as a
sti~~’-H-;;-~~isOolnstructea to ~~t-toliisheart;s~conte~~-an{rn()tto ‘~~p~~~.th~
~~i;~: ~He w~:ho;~~~;: ~~-;~e~;-f~~d~~ith-~h~~dig~itY i<deserved., ,~~!h~!_!I:~l1
eatingwhile he watchedtcle;ision.o~’WhHihe-st~dred,~h~-wa;to devote himself
to’eai:lngwhen he at~.. If he-~ished-to’eat a sandwich, he was to put it on a
pfare-andslt’aownand devote himself exclusively to it. ThllS, ,r~i.l1.forciflg con-
seque[lces such as watchiIlg television or reading would be ;’ithd~~;~-when he
e;;g~ged-‘in the behaviors of pr~p~~i;g’-th~-food:eatIng~-;;d’-deanillg’up. lte-

~ponding to the r~frigerator in between meals resulted in withdrawal of such con-
sequences, as did going to the refrigerator while watching television. Television,
studying, and other stimuli would lose their control of initiating the chain of
behaviors and conditions that terminated in eating. Within one week, the young
man cue oue all eating between meals. “You’ve taken the fun out of it,” he said
to me. We then worked on the contents of the meals as well, and he stopped
attending sessions. I met him about three months later; he was considerably
slimmer and remarked that he needed neither me nor the clinical psychologist to
solve his problems. He could handle them himself.

No claim is made that all problems should be treated in this manner, or that
the 5s had no other problems. The aim was to alter the specified behavior. We
started Out with the simplest procedures. Had these not been effective, we would
have tried others. Some more complex cases will be presented next.

An interesting aspect of these and other cases as well was the fact that in a
very short time 5s ran off by themselves to apply the procedures they had learned.
In some cases, I would have preferred more extensive interchange and wondered
how c1inica:I psychologists were able to keep 5s coming week after week. Finally,
I attributed the tenure of the relationship to what might be called the Schehera-
zade effect. Scheherazade, as you will recall, became the consort of a king who
killed each bedmate after one night, having generalized the infidelity of a pre-
vious wife to all women. Scheherazade told him a story on the first night, which
was not completed by dawn. The king paroled her for the second night to hear
the rest of the story, and having been reinforced, she repeated her behavior, The

schedule maintained such behavior for 1001 nights, and the result is known as the
Arabian Nights.

Few things are more interesting and will Sustain behavior better than slip-
part for talking about one’s self; one is never finished in 50 minutes. Hence,
such discussions may maintain therapy sessions and allow the therapist to interact
with the patient Over an extended period of time. An individual tutorial may
serve the same function.








we discussed a progran
Tuesday, and another or

“Oh,” he said, “YOll
“On the concrary,”

environment where civ
bowling alley.”

I also asked if th
would maintain itself.
farming. He was then
and to attach a $20 bill
on Thursday, at which
fully would continue in

Stimulus Control

Since in the absen
was designed to reduce
instructed to sulk to hi~
ever he felt like sulkin
stool, and sulk and mu
When he was through
wife. He was instruct(
each session. The graF
as 7 hours on the preo


The husband in this case was a young man, 29, who was working on his

master’s degree. His wife was taking my course in behavioral analysis, and they
both decided that he should come to see me about their marriage, which both
wanted to maintain. The issue, as S told me, was that his wife had committed the
“ultimate betrayal” two years ago with S’s best friend. Even worse, it was S who
had suggested that the friend keep his wife company while he was in the library
at night. Since that time, whenever he saw his wife, S screamed at her for hours
on end or else was ashamed of himself for having done so and spent hours sulk-
ing and brooding. Since the events that led to the “betrayal” were an occasion
for bringing home the first lesson on the consequences of behavior, we started
from there.

Relation of Behavior to Its Comequences

Early discussions concerned the analysis of behavior in terms of its conse-
quences. S’s behavior provided stimuli for his wife’s behavior. If he wished
his wife to behave differently to him, then he should provide other stimuli than
the ones which produced the behaviors he did not like. There was considerable
analysis of such interactions. This conceptualization of behavior was apparently
new to S, who took detailed notes; I have discovered it to be new to many other
Ss as well.

Stimulus Change

Altering the consequences of operant behavior will alter the behavior itself.
However, this process may take a considerable amOunt of time. One o(the..m.ost
rapid waysto change behavior is by altering the conditions under whicbiu,lsually
()c:c~lrs. This is calle(Lst~nlttlttLcJ:L4nge or the effects of novel stimuli. If the
novel stimuli are then combined with new behavioral COntingencies designed to
produce different behavior, these contingencies are apt to generate the new be.
havior much more rapidly than they would in the presence of the old stimuli.

As part of the program of establishing new stimuli, S was instructed to reo
arrange the use of rooms and furniture in his house to make it appear considerably
different. His wife wenc one step further and took the occasion to buy herself
a new outfit.

Establishment of New Behavi01″

Since it was impossible for S to converse in a civilized manner with his wife,






O. 5

FIG. 1. Graph kept of sulking behavior


we discussed a program of going to one evening spot on Monday, another on
Tuesday, and another on Wednesday.

“Oh,” he said, “you want us to be together. We’ll go bowling on Thursday.”
“On the contrary,” I said, “I am interested in your subjecting yourself to an

environment where civilized chit-chat is maintained. Such is not the case at a
bowling alley.”—

I also asked if there were any topic of conversation which once started
would maintain itself. He commented on his mother-in-law’s crazy ideas about
farming. He was then given an index card and instructed to write “farm” on it
and to attach a $20 bill to that catd. The $20 was to be used to pay the waitress
on Thursday, at which point he was to start the “farm” discussion which hope-
fully would continue into the taxi and home.

Stimulus Control

Since in the absence of yelling at his wife S sulked and since the program
was designed to reduce yelling, S’s sulking was in danger of increasing. S was
instructed to sulk to his heart’s content but to do so in a specified place. When-
ever he felt like sulking, he was to go into the garage, sit on a special sulking
stool, and sulk and mutter over the indignities of life for as long as he wished.
When he was through with his sulking, he could leave the garage and join his
wife. He was instructed to keep a daily record of such behavior and bring it to
each session. The graph is presented in Fig. 1. Sulking time had been reported
as 7 hours on the preceding day, and, with occasional lapses, it was reported as

behavior better than sup-
d in 50 minutes. Hence,
IW the therapist to interact
.n individual tutorial may

or in terms of its Conse-
behavior. If he wished
rovide other stimuli than

There was considerable
behavior was apparently

to be new to many other

I the result is known as the

who was working on his
lavioral analysis, and they
eir marriage, which both
is wife had committed the
Even worse, it was S who
hile he was in the library
screamed at her for hours
so and spent hours sulk-

etrayal” were an occasion
s of behavior, we started

d manner with his wife,

alter the behavior itself.
f time. QQ~_2bhe.J.:ggst
lS.l.11ldeLwhich it :usually
If novel stimuli. If the
Jntingencies designed to
to generate the new be-
ence of the old stimuli.
, S was instructed to re-
(e it appear considerably
occasion to buy herself

dropping to less than 30 minutes before disappearing entirely. The reported re-
versals and drops were occasions for discussions.

Since the bedroom had been the scene of both bickering and occasional
lapses, the problem was presented of changing its stimulus value when conjugality
was involved. If this could be done consistently, eventually the special stimuli
might come to control such behavior. The problem was to find a stimulus which
could alter the room entirely and would be easy to apply and withdraw. Finally,
a yellow night light was put in, was turned on when both felt amorous, and was
kept turned off otherwise. This light markedly altered the perceptual configura-
tion of the room.

Daily notes of events were kept in a notebook, as was the graph. S took

notes of the discussions with E. These notes were discussed at each weekly

One of the notions which S held very strongly was that his wife’s behavior
stemmed from some inaccessible source within her, and that many of his own
behaviors likewise poured out from himself. In this context, the final sharp rise
in the sulking curve was discussed. “The whole procedure won’t work,” he said,
“my wife doesn’t need me as much as I need her.” The psychiatric message was
that he had no control over his wife, but I chose to ignore this message in favor
of a didactic one on the behavioral definition of needs. He was asked how he
knew what his wife’s needs were. Was he an amoeba slithering into her tissues
and observing tissue needs? Was he a mind reader? After my repeated rejec-
tion of subjective definitions of needs, he redefined the problem behaviorally,
namely, that his wife behaved a certain way less than he did. He said that stated
this way it sounded silly, but I said, “No, it’s a problem to you and not silly.”

What were these behaviors? They apparently included such dependency
behaviors as asking him to do things for her. “When was the last time she
asked you to do something for her?” I asked. He replied that the previous day
she had asked him to replace a light bulb in the kitchen. Had he done so, I
asked. “No,” he said. He was then asked to consider the extinction of pigeon
behavior and took notes to the effect that, if he wished his wife to act helpless,
he should reinforce dependency by doing what she asked.

A discussion on needs and personality ensued. “If by personality all that is
meant is my behavior,” he said, “then my personality changes from one moment
to the next, because my behavior changes,” he stated.

“1 should hope so,” 1 said.
“Well, what is my true personality, what is the true me?” he asked.
“Do you have a true behavior?” 1 asked.
He reported this as a viewpoint he had never considered; his previous train-

ing had been in terms of being consistent to his self, and of searching for “thine
own self (to which he could) be true.” He took extensive notes.


The next we(
have never done 1:
manage my studen
allow myself to be
I went to the gara
one-year’s guarant’
scrapper. She can
should I have to 1:
tradespeople I don

These weekI:
After the initial 1
was taking the cc
tered around beha

During the (
hood and was SUIT

“Shouldn’t I
of the things thai

“Look,” I sai
next day, a farmt
in 1963. What c

“The farmer
“Wrong,” I

day. Had they 1
Let’s discuss the

At the end
ners were able to

This case cc
their sexual relat
a year. Both hu
were professiona
their friends an<
to maintain the
marital relatiom
might carry itst

Husband a
Both were instrl
each other, sinct

Various pr
was repulsed.
husband fell asl.
“I am at my wil

ltirely. The reported re-

bickering and occasional
1S value when conjugality
tually the special stimuli
to find a stimulus which

1 and withdraw. Finally,
,th felt amorous, and was
the perceptual configura-

was the graph. 5 took
!iscussed at each weekly

; that his wife’s behavior
d that many of his own
Hext, the final sharp rise
lre won’t work,” he said,
psychiatric message was

)re this message in favor
He was asked how he

lithering into her tissues
After my repeated rejec-
Ie problem behaviorally,
did. He said that stated
) you and not silly.”
:luded such dependency
1 was the last time she
~d that the previous day
en. Had he done so, 1
:he extinction of pigeon
his wife to act helpless,

by personality all that is
lUges from one moment

me?” he asked.

ered; …

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